Shoshone Bannok in Fort Hall


Port Hall was an important station on the west trip and is a fascinating place to visit now! This is true not only because of its unique role in Oregon and California trail history, but also because the Shoshone-Bannock reservation culture thrives. Emphasizing the unique aspect of Fort Hall Shoshone-Bannocks is recognizing the role of cultural values ​​in the achievement of levels of economic success and mitigating changes caused by market impact, which are not historically typical reservations.

Known as Pohogues (people of Sage), Fort Hall Shoshones probably lived in the southwestern corner of Great Basin 4,000 years ago and migrated to the Snake River Drain for centuries. The first contact with the whites made contact with Lewis and Clark near the reservation as of August 1805. The construction desperately needed words, but Lewis was desperate to meet Shoshones, who ran away when he witnessed it. Finally, the explorers surprised the three Shosho women who had no time to escape. Lewis provided gifts and persuaded his peaceful intentions when more than 60 warriors were violent, armed and ready to fight.

In 1918, the canvas of the Montana cowboy artist Charles Russell commemorates the war party of Kameawait and the meeting of the Discovery Corps. Captain Maryweather Lewis, with both units, abandoned the gun and advanced only to the American flag. He said, “We were all concerned with grease and paint until we were completely relieved by the national rest.

Lewis shot down and walked alone with the American flag. The bad news from this encounter is that you can’t count the river. The good news is that the Indians had a herd of four hundred, some of which were traded with simple trinkets. They also suggested the old man “Old Toby” as a guide. A trap hunter named John Rees is from Tosa-tive koo-be, where “Toby” literally means “gave” and “gave” in Shoshone Sudan. Suggested to be a contraction, whatever his name, he helped them through the Bitterroot Mountains, these were a huge range covered in snow, they wanted a short Portage to take Portland to a tributary to sail.

Shoshone has always relied heavily on ecosystems for their food, especially salmon for the roots and seasons of camas plants. It is interesting that sometimes Lewis and Clark survived almost completely from the roots of Cama while traveling. Shoshone also ate morning glory root and sego root. In spring, you could find wild onions, new cattail stems, wild asparagus, and wild carrots. In summer, there were wild strawberries, gooseberries, water lilies and sunflower seeds. In the fall, Shoshone selected raisins, service berries and buckberries. What did the Indians do with camas? Almost without exception, they slowly bake in the oven.

They were also able to get pine nuts from Pinon pines at this time of year. They picked and roasted nuts from pine cones to plow or peel and grind into flour. In a replica of Pocatello’s old fortress hall, the wide sheet tells about some plants that Lewis and Clark found. Of course, salmon was the most important of the season, and later it was the source of a violent dispute over fishing rights. (See the Shoshoni Cookbook by Faith Stone and AnnSaks for delicious recipes from Zucchini Pinenut Tamales.)

Shoshones also influenced the fur trade. Rocky Mountain trap hunters have been separate pieces of European American society throughout the year. They were isolated five hundred miles from the settlement. When summer passed and the meeting began and the express train treked across the great plains, they saw other whites. Not only did the Indians supply fur, this important event may have originated from India’s precedent, the Shoshoni trade fair, traditionally held in the summer. It was a fusion of two cultures’ trading consciousness and was very successful because it combined the practicality of the market with the frivolity and celebration of social events.

Wine, women, and songs guaranteed emotional release for both Indians and trappers, and although temporary, took root as an institution in 1825. Neither trappers nor Indians were rewarded for their efforts to secure beavers and other furs. company. However, the Indians were not slaves to the fur trade, but were intelligent traders who could easily rule out almost any trade article. In fact, according to Chittenden, the western fur trade in the United States, “The relationship between India and the merchant was the most natural and goodwill enemy that the two races have maintained for each other.”

Entrepreneurs like Nathaniel Wyeth, born like a Yankee, challenged an existing British company to build a porthole. Wyeth’s men completed the construction of the fortress on August 4, 1834 and unfolded stars and stripes the next day at sunrise. Wyeth and his staff named “Fort Hall” to honor Henry Hall, his oldest partner, who “finished a bale liqueur.” Wyeth later sold Fort Hall to Hudson Bay Company. The Hudson Bay Company was unable to compete with other companies and became a trading hub for hungry land. Photo

At this point, the corn, soybeans, squash and dried meat supplied by the Indians were very valuable to the pillars and often avoided starvation. Coffee, sugar, tobacco and alcohol came from the east. Sometimes the merchants prepared a lavish feast. “A dinner is prepared that includes fresh bison meat, beef, poultry and lamb, hot corn, fresh butter, milk and cheese, white bread and a variety of fruits. All are carefully selected for vintage wine and brandy.” However, such cases were very rare. When visiting this area, a replica of Pocatello’s old fortress hall is the main attraction. The display covers the entire history of the fortress and is very informative. Adjacent to the fortress, the Bannock County Historical Museum displays Holladay Overland Stage Company stagecoach and Shoshoni and Bannock ethnographic photos and objects.

When the 41-year-olds came to the west looking for gold, they took precautions to carry guns, pistols and bowie knives, but a pioneer near the port hall said, “Fleas, whiskeys, mules out of 20 enemies against the dangers of India ‘S hind legs, tornadoes and cold currents have become much more serious.” Indians are constantly accustomed to those who seek luck, and intruders often cheat, but tolerate intruders.

The 41 people, in turn, teased the Indians, but tried to be kind to the people who came to the camp, feeling so guilty that so many people invaded their land. Written by Arch Butler Hulbert, written in 1931, Forty-Niners contains maps of eight consecutive parts of the West, words about music and songs sung along the way, and cartoon illustrations of the times. . According to the author, it was collected from every diary or journal that could reveal the pioneer experience. “If there is no salt in the buffalo steak, sprinkle it with a gunpowder to taste the salted pepper.”

After acquiring horses, Indians expanded the economy, including processed food received from buffalo and trade. As a source of wealth, words deepened the conflict between certain Indian groups. The horse was also the traction of the northern group Bannocks, who joined Shoshones at Fort Hall. However, until the mid-1860s, non-Indians penetrated almost all parts of the Snake country. Depletion of Indian resources led to the Great Snake War. Shoshones ultimately agreed to move to the Fort Hall Reservation. Reservations were established by administrative order under the terms of the Port Bridge Treaty in 1868. It originally included 1.8 million acres, which decreased to 1,200,000 acres in 1872 as a result of survey errors. Through subsequent legislation and allocation processes, the reservation has been further reduced to its current size.

Survival in new conditions has become a big problem. There were many difficulties that residents had to deal with bad water, floods, boarding schools and government complaints. Food was often scarce because Indians still looked at this area in terms of customary survival patterns in the area and became dependent on the government to survive. However, the adaptability of these survival patterns, along with a loosely organized kinship system that emphasized family relationships, helped Indians adapt to new situations. The availability of water for irrigation eventually determined the level of agricultural and economic development, which had great potential compared to other reservations. The port hall was also located on a major trading street where roads and railroads pass or are nearby.

Later, there was uncertainty due to inconsistencies between cattle owners and farmers regarding reservations and inconsistencies with agencies on allocation and land use. The prejudice of organs that represent mixed blood has also led to criticism of favor and hostility. The heightened conflict has influenced religious traditions such as ghost dancing and sun dancing. Indians headed for ghost dance due to the difficulty of booking. Anyone in the family who is ill can dance with a man and a woman. It later discovered the Messianic craze that swept the plains. Sun dance was banned for some time, but the leaders protested and organized the infamous Sun Dance in 1914, attended by about 1500 people, and emphasized the importance of the Sho Shoune-Bannock identity.

Ralph Dixey formed the Porthole Indian Stockman Association in 1921 with the approval of new agent William Donner. The association supported innovation. Controversial, but many believe this law has helped preserve the common tribal zone.

Economies of scale gave the association a competitive advantage over non-Indian cattle growers. When the cattle association threatened to become too powerful, it was markedly self-regulated for the benefit of the settlement. Shoshone-Bannocks welcomed the mayor, but kept a sense of community and tried to reach political consensus according to tradition.

In the 20th century, leaders continued to reconcile their interest in entrepreneurs and communities. In 1939, the Idaho Regional Fair expanded to the state’s main fair, increasing Idaho’s Sho Sone-Knock knock social status. The introduction of handicrafts for sale, cabins and automobiles contributed to the modernization and influenced the economy. Sundance became an entrepreneur by charging admission and allowing concessions.

Visitors can now take part in the Show Shone Festival held in August, which is unique due to a variety of activities related to the event, including softball tournaments, golf tournaments, rodeos, Indian relay horse racing, art shows, parades, traditional hand games, and more. Tournaments, Aboriginal children’s games, community buffalo & salmon festivals, fun running and more. Handicrafts can be seen at the Don Jia Gift Shop inside the New Shoshone Hotel & Event Center, located at exit 15, exit 80 of Port Hall, Idaho, next to the Port Hall Casino.

Some of the difficult legal problems faced by Shoshones in their late 20s included the government’s Native American “Wardship” termination policy or termination policy. It was promoted by parliament in the 1950s, and the goal was to end the close relationship between the government and the Indians, but was considered justification for waiving responsibility for them. When the termination efforts failed, the government launched programs to promote health, education and economic development. Similar programs have been run successfully by reserved tribes.

The dispute over Porthole’s fishing rights and land ownership claims and assignments continued for years ignored by Lemhi Shoshones (Sacajawea group). Perhaps as part of an effort to reconcile them, the Sacajawea Interpretation, Culture and Education Center was dedicated just east of Salmon in 2001 and is another interesting visitor attraction. Now guests of Shoshone-Bannocks can get fishing permits and fish at the beautiful Fort Hall bottom. Permission is catch and release. The mission of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish & Wildlife Department is to protect, restore and enhance fish and wildlife related resources as they have tribal unique interests and rights to those resources and habitats.

John W. Heaton, author of Shoshone-Bannocks, Culture and Commerce at Fort Hall in 1870-1948, shows a very positive picture of today’s economy.

The Shoshone-Bannock economy of the 21st century relies on a variety of mixes: commercial agriculture and mining. Pursuing funding projects such as games, bison ranches, online handicraft shops and tourism that provide wages, work opportunities and social safety nets; And with regard to reservations, they individually pursued livelihood, entrepreneurship and wage labor opportunities. The people of the Shoshone-Bannock tribe continue to succeed in the marketplace by recreating collective values ​​and distinct identities. They remain adaptable and resilient people who seek meaningful presence in an ever-changing world.

The identity of Shoshone-Bannock at on the internet certainly confirms this rating. As of August 2015, there are 5,859 Shoshone-Bannock tribal members registered. 4,038 of the tribal members are in the Fort Hall Reservation. The “Who We Are” page contains extensive history, photos and maps. Many meetings and alumni associations are mentioned. Recent impressive achievements include social and environmental services, energy management, hotel and event centers, and Bannock Peak Casino. Sori Festival’s 360-degree virtual tour puts viewers right in the middle of the festival. When it comes to food, Camas Sports Grill offers a variety of breakfast, lunch and dinner options. Representative products include Fry Bread Breakfast, Idaho Nachos and Bison Sliders.

This itinerary emphasized that Shoeone-Bannock’s successful transition to Fort Hall not only enjoyed economic self-sufficiency, but also a prosperous modern society in the early 21st century, when Cameahwait first met Lewis and Clark near the Snake River in the early 19th century. Congratulations on cultural values. Everyone who visits the area loves to meet people, visit attractions, and attend festivals.

Virtual tour of the Shoshone-Bannock Festival Arbor, Vendors’ Booth, Grand Entry and 3 audio tracks from the website